Mechanical pressure switches: What principle do they work on?

Mechanical pressure switches in compact design ensure safe pressure monitoring in, for instance, pumps, compressors and mobile working machines. Whatever the application, they function in accordance with the principle of the preloaded spring, with a diaphragm or perhaps a piston because the measuring element.
Mechanical pressure switches like the PSM01 (see illustration) are constructed in accordance with the schematic diagram (left): electrical connection (1), adjustment screw (2), preloaded spring (3), switch contact (4), measuring element (5) and process connection (6). The model PSM01 and model PSM02 (with adjustable hysteresis) are compact switches. They will have a height of 50 mm (version with blade terminal) and spanner widths of 24 and 27.
With this particular functional principle, two forces act:
The process pressure
It creates the measuring component of the pressure switch react. The instruments are therefore designed in two ways. Regarding low process pressures, mechanical pressure switches therefore include a diaphragm (due to the large surface absorbing the pressure), whereas, at higher pressures, they will have a piston with a small surface area.
The force of the preloaded spring
This is adjusted via the adjustment screw of the pressure switch. The further the screw is turned in, the stronger the force of the spring that the measuring element has to overcome. This is associated with a rise in the switch point?s value. The spring geometry is designed based on the required switching range. Relative to the functional principle of the mechanical pressure switch, the switch point is defined by the amount of spring preload. It really is set when the pressure increases, and the reset point is set accordingly when the pressure decreases.
What should be considered when selecting the setting range?
When choosing the setting range, it is crucial for the user to consider the utmost system pressure to that your pressure switch is subjected. Regarding the WIKA compact instruments, PSM01 and PSM02 (with adjustable hysteresis), for example, this is 60 bar (diaphragm) and 350 bar (piston).
The setting range is smaller than the overload safety. This means that pressure spikes could be absorbed. That is important, for example, for idle-running protection in pumps. There, the system pressure can be many times greater than the switching value. Therefore, the PSM01 and PSM02 pressure switches in the piston version have a switching range of around 320 bar. Sins of these two models can switch up to a maximum of 16 bar. The comparatively small range is explained by the particularly sensitive measuring element, that provides high repeatability. A larger switching and overpressure range would consequently need a stronger diaphragm ? at the trouble of repeatability.
Note
More info on the PSM01 and PSM02 pressure switches can be found on the WIKA website. You want to buy pressure switches? In our WIKA online-shop you will find a few of our standard designs. In case you have further questions, your contact will gladly assist you to.
Also read our posts
So how exactly does one set the switch point for mechanical pressure switches?
Mechanical vs. electronic pressure switches: Application areas
Mechanical vs. electronic pressure switches: Functionality

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